Posts Tagged 'eco-friendly'

Plain soap and water

mom and son washing hands

Cropped image. Cade Martin and Dawn Arlott, PIXNIO. CC license.

How many times a day do doctors wash their hands? Dozens, perhaps. And they encourage us to follow effective hand-washing techniques as well.

“But, the conversation shouldn’t end there”, according to Dr. Paula Kim, M.D. with Beaumont Health, clinical professor at Wayne State University’s School of Medicine, and associate professor at Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine. She says, “The next questions are: What type of soap is used at home? Is it an antibacterial? Or is it plain soap and water?”

The Centers for Disease Control, American Medical Association, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and others overwhelmingly encourage people to use non-antibacterial (plain) soap and warm water, and to rub hands together for a minimum of 20 to 30 seconds.

Why plain soap? Isn’t an antibacterial product more effective? Surprisingly, no. In 2013 the FDA challenged manufacturers of over-the-counter antibacterial hand and body soaps to prove that their products are more effective at killing germs than plain soap and water. And they couldn’t do it.

“There’s no data demonstrating that these drugs provide additional protection from diseases and infections. Using these products might give people a false sense of security,” says Theresa M. Michele, M.D., of the FDA’s Division of Nonprescription Drug Products.

Due to health risks, including bacterial resistance, the FDA banned manufacturers from using almost all antibacterial chemicals, including the widely used triclosan. Manufacturers of hand and body soaps (soaps intended to be used with water) have until September 2017 to switch their formulations. The new rule affects most of the liquid hand soaps and bar soaps currently on the market. It does not affect hand sanitizers or hand wipes.

Health risks

The FDA is heeding the warning of research showing that the use of triclosan can lead to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics, making them ineffective. The agency also expressed concern over triclosan’s potential hormonal effects. According to the FDA, “…recent studies have demonstrated that triclosan showed effects on the thyroid, estrogen, and testosterone systems in several animal species, including mammals, the implications of which on human health, especially for children, are still not well understood.”

Other organizations, such as the Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA), have found — in addition to concerns about endocrine activity — triclosan carries risks for the reproductive system and brain development.

Exposure

We likely use at least one product every day that contains triclosan. Antibacterial chemicals are added to thousands of products, including household cleaners, cosmetics (including deodorant, toothpaste and mouthwash), clothing, furniture, lunchboxes, backpacks, food packaging, kitchen utensils, children’s toys and more. But the chemical doesn’t simply stay in those products. Researchers found triclosan in household dust, in streams and other waterways, in wildlife, in human plasma and breast milk, and in drinking water.

Indeed the multitude of exposure paths was a driving factor behind the FDA’s original inquiry. According to a September 2016 FDA Consumer Update factsheet, Antibacterials? You Can Skip It – Use Plain Soap and Water, “…people’s long-term exposure to triclosan is higher than previously thought, raising concerns about the potential risks associated with the use of this ingredient over a lifetime.”

Consumers

Many people use antibacterial soaps without knowing they are using an OTC drug. Shoppers should watch out for the word “antibacterial” or the phrase “kills germs”. Generally, we find these words and phrases reassuring. But remember that it isn’t necessary to kill all the germs, but to simply remove them with plain soap and water. Then wash them down the drain. A drug facts label on a soap or body wash is a sign a product contains antibacterial ingredients. As Dr. Kim always encourages her patients, “Read the label on anything you buy. Read what’s in it!”

More information

You don’t have to settle for toxic triclosan in your household cleaners either. Dr. Kim suggests her patients to “use natural things if possible, such as vinegar and water.” White vinegar is a food-grade anti-microbial that can kill germs on surfaces. Or look for Clean Well brand soaps and sanitizers, which use thyme oil as the active ingredient to kill germs. Some of the Seventh Generation brand cleaning products include the Clean Well technology also.

– Melissa Sargent, Environmental Health Educator with LocalMotionGreen at Ecology Center. For more information, you can email her at melissas@ecocenter.org or visit http://www.ecocenter.org/lmg.

Gifts for your mother (Earth, that is)

Furoshiki gifts

image credit: agata.org.ua

 

As with most mothers, it’s the simple things—the heart-felt things—that matter most to our planet Earth. Practicing simple habits throughout the season can make a big difference.

Gift-giving

Before purchasing a gift or other item for the holiday, do a quick mental checklist. Does the item have:

  • Low mileage? (Is the backstory like a retelling of “Planes, Trains, and Automobiles?”) When you opt for locally and regionally made products, you significantly reduce the transportation pollution connected to your gift. You will boost the local economy, too.
  • Minimal or no packaging? According to the EPA, almost one-third of municipal waste in the U.S. is discarded packaging. Paper or cardboard packaging is more easily recycled than plastic.
  • Natural content? From cradle (production) to grave (disposal), plastic and other petroleum-based materials (such as polyester fleece) wreak havoc on the environment and the health of the people who live near the facilities. A gift made of natural materials is also the least toxic option for the recipient.

Tip: Give homemade gifts; an “experience” such as tickets to a play, museum, or movie; an activity such as ice skating; or a service (e.g., a massage) for a perfect score on your checklist.

Energy

  • When updating and adding to your holiday light collection, opt for LEDs. They use 70 percent less energy than traditional bulbs.
  • Use a timer to control when the holiday lights turn on and off.
  • Wrap your home! No, not with yards of gift paper and bows! Install storm doors and windows. Cover windows with plastic if you don’t have storm windows. Block drafts under doors.
  • Ask Santa to install a programmable thermostat for an estimated 10 percent cut in energy costs and use.

Waste

Americans throw away about 25 percent more trash between Thanksgiving and New Year’s Eve. Non-material gifts win in this category as well because experiences or services don’t need wrapping. We would save enough paper to cover 45,000 football fields if every American family wrapped just three presents in reused materials. Ways to reuse materials:

  • Reuse gift bags.
  • Repurpose old t-shirts, maps, sheet music, newspaper comics, scarves, fabric, or handkerchiefs instead of using new wrapping paper.
  • Turn cereal boxes inside out and decorate them.
  • Use reusable tins or decorative storage boxes.
  • Save used gift wrappings for the next holiday. Recycle any wrappings that can’t be reused.
  • Close the loop: Buy gifts made from recycled content.

Food waste

About 40 percent of the food grown in the country is wasted, according to Forgotten Harvest, a food rescue organization in southeast Michigan. One way to make a difference is to adjust your expectation of cosmetic beauty and buy “ugly” produce. Oddly shaped produce often sits on the shelf and becomes waste before it is even sold. More ideas:

  • Make a grocery list and stick to it. Don’t buy or make more than you need.
  • Keep reusable containers on hand for leftovers for you and others. Look up new recipes for leftovers.
  • Compost any food waste in a backyard pile or a vermiculture (worm!) bin.

Decorations

Keep it real whenever you can. Whether it’s a tree, a wreath, a swag, or table centerpiece, real greenery is healthier for you and the planet. Artificial trees and decorations are made of PVC plastic and cannot be recycled. They can also have lead, phthalates and other toxic chemicals. Experts recommend that parents don’t let children play under artificial trees. Real trees, on the other hand, are renewable, recyclable and produce oxygen. Farmers plant one to three seedlings for every tree cut.

Consider these ideas like the ultimate handmade card to Mother Earth: They aren’t hard, they just take a little extra time, consideration and love.

– Melissa Cooper Sargent, Environmental Health Educator with LocalMotionGreen at Ecology Center. For more information, you can email her at melissas@ecocenter.org or visit http://www.ecocenter.org/lmg.

Gardening for bees and children

Boy and girl laying in field of dandelions

Unaltered image. William Prost, Flickr. CC license.

Spring has finally handed Old Man Winter his coat and hat and sent him on his way. Life in our yards reemerges as the grass turns green, robins return, and bees begin buzzing. But one sign of spring isn’t always welcome: the humble dandelion.

However I dare to say: Let’s celebrate the little sun-like flower heads!

What? The scourge of green landscapes everywhere?

Yes! These bits of yellow dotting our lawns are a most welcome site to pollinators (and children) who endured the barren, winter months. Dandelions offer hungry bees their first source of nectar each spring, sustaining our pollinators until the abundance of the season blooms in full. And have you ever met a small child more joyous than one picking dandelion flowers, making dandelion chains, or blowing their white fluffy seeds?

European settlers intentionally brought dandelions to America for its nutrient-dense leaves (which are also a gentle diuretic), its liver-cleansing root, and its flowers that can be made into wine. It seems the plant is quite comfortable here, employing its long tap root to break up compacted soils everywhere. It’s fitting that this European native plant supports the European honeybee so perfectly.

Across the country — and the world — people are concerned about the continual and dramatic decline of bees, monarch butterflies, and other pollinators. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates a nation-wide loss of 42 percent of managed honeybee colonies in 2015 (some states lost more than 60 percent). Native pollinator numbers are harder to track, but a recent article in BioScience states that half of the 46 or 47 species of bumblebees in the United States are in some level of decline. The Xerces Society estimates 80 percent fewer monarch butterflies in North America than the average population over the past 21 years.

The good news: Anyone with a yard can contribute to helping these important species. The first step is to offer food in the form of nectar and pollen. Embrace pollen and nectar-rich flowers like dandelions, clover, goldenrod and aster that appear in your yard. The next step is to not poison your visitors once they do accept your invitation; in other words, avoid all lawn and garden pesticides. This will create a healthy place for children and pets to play as well. Don’t worry; gardens and lawns can still be beautiful. Visit the Ecology Center’s table and three pesticide-free gardens at the 2016 Grosse Pointe Garden Center Garden Tour!

Here are some additional ways to get started:

  • Go neonic-free. Ask garden centers if their flowering plants are free of neonicotinoids, a class of pesticides, which are particularly lethal to bees and other beneficial insects. In 2014, 51 percent of garden plants tested positive for one or more neonic.
    • Home Depot is now labeling plants treated with neonics. Both Lowe’s and Home Depot have agreed to stop selling neonics by 2019. Ask Ace Hardware and True Value to do the same.
    • The U.S. government temporarily halted the registration of any new neonic products.
    • The state of Maryland recently banned the sale of neonics in stores.
  • Treat grubs naturally with beneficial nematodes or milky spore, not Merit® or other products that contain neonicotinoids. Refer to Pest Patrol: Grubs for more tips on grub control. Wondering if your garden product contains neonics? Check this list of brand name products containing neonicotinoids.
  • Avoid weed and feed products. Believe it or not, they are pesticides. Most contain 2,4-D, a dangerous herbicide linked to cancer in humans and canine lymphoma. Learn how to maintain a lawn without pesticides.
  • Gardening for Bees and Children In 2015 Roundup’s active ingredient, glyphosate, was declared a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In November 2015, glyphosate plus another additive in some Roundup formulations were found to have even greater potential health risks. Products are coming off store shelves in Germany and France.
  • Plant native perennials, shrubs, and trees to attract pollinators, as well as beneficial pest-eating insects and birds. Visit The Native Plant Nursery of Michigan, this list of bee-friendly wildflowers and flowers, or this list five spring plants that could save monarch butterflies. Remember: Using pesticides will poison all the bugs (including the beneficial ones) and the birds that eat them.
  • Learn more about successful gardening without pesticides with the Ecology Center’s spring checklist for a healthy yard.

– Melissa Cooper Sargent, Environmental Health Educator with LocalMotionGreen at Ecology Center. For more information, you can email her at melissas@ecocenter.org or visit http://www.ecocenter.org/lmg.

Hey, Mom and Dad! What is Earth Day anyway?

Black & white hands holding color Earth

Unaltered image. Steven Guzzardi, Flickr. CC license.

We’ve been celebrating Earth Day on April 22 since 1970. What started out as a small grass-roots effort for environmental protection has turned into a day celebrated by 193 countries! Here are some fun ways to celebrate with your children, while showing them how important being earth-friendly is.

Activities and crafts

Learn together

  • Watch this tour of a recycling center with LaVar Burton from “Reading Rainbow.” I’m sure many of our kids have wondered what happens to the stuff in the recycling bin after the truck takes it away.
  • Did you know that water conservation is incredibly important?
    • Learn why, what you can do to help, and check out the game for kids.
    • Then discover 20 ways your family can help save water.
  • Read a book.

Take action

  • Take a walk and discuss how you can help the earth stay healthy.
  • Turn off lights and electronics whenever they aren’t in use.
  • Recycle at home. When you’re out and about, look for recycle bins; remember, you can always bring your things home to recycle.

Toys, décor and more: Chemical flame retardants come full circle

Closeup of Mardi Gras beads

What happens to your old computer after you haul it to the local e-waste recycling drop off? Many of us have seen photos of workers (including children) dismantling electronic waste in developing countries. But then what? Surprisingly, after traveling halfway around the world, parts of your outdated desktop may end up back in your home in any number of items, including children’s products. Items like decorations, costumes, accessories, toys, school supplies, kitchen items, garden tools, apparel, floor tiles and more.

The Ecology Center, a local non-profit organization, sampled more than 1,500 of these products for a recently published, peer-reviewed study. The researchers uncovered evidence that plastics from recycled electronic waste —old computers, phones, TVs, printers, cables, etc. — are contaminating new products with low levels of brominated flame retardants, lead and other metals. The exposure hazards for consumers are not known.

The Journal of Environmental Protection published the paper titled “Toys, Décor and More: Evidence of Hazardous Electronic Waste Recycled into New Consumer Products” in February 2016. (The full text is available here.)

More than 1,500 new consumer products purchased in 2012 through 2014, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to detect metals and bromine in the plastic parts of these items.

Electronic products were much more likely than non-electronics to contain high levels of bromine (greater than 1,000 parts per million), suggesting that flame retardants were intentionally added, as expected. Non-electronic products were more likely to contain between 5 and 100 ppm bromine, suggesting unintentional contamination. But the results of some products didn’t fall into the normal ranges.

“While we expected to find high levels of bromine in electronics,” Ecology Center staff scientist and lead author of the study Gillian Miller says, “we were very surprised to find equally high levels of bromine in beaded necklaces and garlands, such as Mardi Gras beads.” Miller found that besides bromine, these strands of beads — commonly tossed to children at parades and hung in homes during the holidays — also had several other hazardous elements often found in e-waste, including lead.

Electronic and electrical devices typically contain flame retardant chemicals and heavy metals. When plastic parts of these products are recycled into new, non-electronic products, hazardous substances can re-enter the marketplace. Miller and her fellow authors of the study argue that bromine (at both low and high levels) in non-electrical products is at least partly due to brominated flame retardants present in recycled e-waste plastics. E-waste plastics include TV and computer monitor housings, as well as wire and cable insulation.

But why were bromine levels so much higher in the beaded holiday garlands and necklaces than in the other non-electronics? Miller and her colleagues needed to know. To further understand the anomaly, they used a different technique that allowed them to identify specific chemicals. They found five brominated flame retardants (including deca-BDE, which was phased out of U.S. production in 2013) in beads sampled from 50 different necklaces. When cut open and examined with a microscope, the beads were found to be a mixture of tiny plastic chunks. Bromine was heavily concentrated in some of these chunks, suggesting that the bead plastic is made up of tiny pieces of discarded electronics.

A cross-section of a bead

A cross-section of a bead.

The study underscores how these hazardous chemicals persist in our world and will continue to show up long after they are no longer used. The results are consistent with studies by other researchers that have found low concentrations of brominated flame retardants, most likely from recycled e-waste, in plastic kitchen utensils and toys.

This doesn’t mean you should simply throw your old electronics into the trash, where they will be added to the municipal solid waste stream. All of those heavy metals and hazardous chemicals may end up polluting the air and water if not handled properly. The answer may lie with local e-waste recyclers who process outdated gadgets on-site (instead of sending them overseas), practicing strict safety standards, and tracking toxic materials downstream of their facilities; see below for a list. And whether you are shopping for holiday decorations or enjoying a parade, don’t bother reaching for the shiny plastic beads.

– Melissa Cooper Sargent, Environmental Health Educator with LocalMotionGreen at Ecology Center. For more information, you can email her at melissas@ecocenter.org or visit http://www.ecocenter.org/lmg.

Local e-waste recyclers in southeast Michigan:

  • e-Stewards: The recyclers listed here have committed to the e-Stewards Standard, which prohibits the export of hazardous electronic waste from developed to developing countries while allowing viable technology to be reused. It includes responsible used electronics management and downstream accountability for toxic materials to final disposition.
  • Global Electric Electronic Processing (GEEP): Processes e-waste locally in southeast Michigan and has e-Steward certification.
  • Call2Recycle: The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corp. accepts old cell phones for free recycling. They have drop-off sites in many cities (usually in stores). Use their location finder to enter your ZIP code to find the closest to you.

Is nail polish safe enough?

Little girl admiring her polished nails

Unaltered image. David D, Flickr. CC license.

When shopping for a safer nail polish, many moms and dads are relieved to see either the phrase “DBP-free” or “3-free” on the label. The first term indicates the product doesn’t contain di-butyl phthalate (DBP), a plasticizer and an endocrine disruptor. DBP is banned for use in Europe due to its link to cancer and birth defects. The second term indicates omission of DBP, as well as toluene (affects the brain and nervous system) and formaldehyde (a known carcinogen).

To achieve this, consumer advocates spoke out about the hazards of toxics in nail polish. They raised awareness among the public, lobbied legislators, and pressed companies for safer options. Over the past 10 years we’ve seen the hard work of these efforts pay off as more and more nail polish companies remove the three most dangerous chemicals from their formulas and reformulate.

DBP goes out, but DBP did improve the flexibility of nail polish. What is being used instead?

Flame retardant chemical found in nail polish

In October 2015, Duke University researchers and Environmental Working Group (EWG) released a study showing evidence of a spike in triphenyl phosphate (TPHP or TPP) in every woman who volunteered to paint her nails.

Within 14 hours of painting her nails, each of the 26 volunteers had an increase of a TPHP by-product (the metabolite, DPHP) in their urine. On average, that increase was seven times higher than the level before painting the nails. The chemical is thought to have entered the body through the skin, rather than via inhalation since volunteers who painted gloved hands did not have elevated levels of the metabolite.

Almost half of the 3,000 nail polishes in the EWG Skin Deep database (list TPHP as an ingredient. Additionally, the researchers tested a small sample of nail products for the chemical. One fourth of those testing positive for TPHP did not list it as an ingredient. Clear polishes tended to have more TPHP than ones with color.

The researchers quote recent health studies indicating that TPHP may affect the body’s metabolism and production of fat cells, possibly contributing to weight gain and obesity. TPHP is a flame retardant. And like DBP, TPHP is a plasticizer, making it useful to increase the flexibility of nail polish.

The researchers note that using nail polish may cause short-term exposure to TPHP. For frequent users of nail polish, however, TPHP may be a long-term hazard.

Regrettable substitutions

As consumers rail against the use of one harmful chemical after another, manufacturers often simply reach for the closest chemical on the proverbial shelf. Bisphenol-A (BPA) and PBDEs are two recent examples.

  • BPA: After much effort from concerned parents, BPA (an endocrine-disruptor) was removed from plastic baby bottles, only to be replaced with BPS, a chemical very similar in structure and toxicity to BPA.
  • PBDE: These flame retardants are no longer in new couches, chairs or children’s car seats. Instead we find toxic tris, which was banned in the 1970s for use in children’s pajamas.

And now — after years of thinking the battle had been won — researchers find TPHP, a plasticizer, flame retardant, and suspected endocrine disruptor in nail polish.

Those working for regulation reform have casually referred to this phenomenon as “toxics whack-a-mole”. As soon as one toxic chemical is knocked out, another one pops up in its place. Concerned parents and health advocates are back at square one getting the new chemical off of stores shelves, while children and other vulnerable populations continue to be exposed. The phenomenon is becoming so common-place that the term “regrettable substitutions” has now taken hold.

We need to fix federal toxics regulation in order to stop the continuous stream of regrettable substitutions. Legislation to reform the Toxics Substances Control Act, which regulates the chemical industry, is currently being debated in Congress. Public health advocates are urging law-makers for critical improvements to the bill before it gets to the president’s desk. Read: Congress’ Update of Toxic Chemical Controls Can Do More.

Be your own EPA

In the meantime, consumers are left relying on third-party research to find out what to put in the shopping cart. First of all, to minimize toxics exposures, put less in your cart (buy less stuff). Second, put in simpler products (with ingredients you can pronounce).

But these suggestions, especially in regard to nail polish, might not go ever well with American teen and tween girls, 97 percent of whom use nail polish (14 percent on a daily basis).

And it isn’t just teens and tweens; children as young as four and five also have fun decorating their nails. One mommy blogger even advocates applying polish to the toe nails of 3-month-old babies. The author claimed that since EWG ranks nail polish, you can find ones that are “pretty safe for your infant”. But, is that safe enough? Unfortunately, the nail polish battle is not over. It contains at least one more chemical of concern and when this one is removed, what will appear in it place?

– Melissa Cooper Sargent, Environmental Health Educator with LocalMotionGreen at Ecology Center. For more information, you can email her at melissas@ecocenter.org or visit http://www.ecocenter.org/lmg.

Safe seats

 Boy asleep in rear-facing Britax Marathon car seat.

As parents we spend hours researching options when considering the purchase of a new car seat as it’s one of the most important and well-used tools in keeping our little loved ones safe. We consider price, functionality, color, size, softness, etc. Most of us, however, never dream that we have to consider whether or not the product is hazardous.

Toxic Seats

HealthyStuff.org, a program of the Ecology Center, recently released their 2015 Car Seat Study. Hidden Passengers: Chemical Hazards in Children’s Car Seats is their fifth such report since 2006 testing for potentially toxic chemicals, particularly flame retardants. Once again the majority of car seats (73 percent) tested contained hazardous flame retardants.

HealthyStuff.org Research Director, Jeff Gearhart, is quick to point out, “Car seats save lives. It’s absolutely essential that parents put their children in them while driving, regardless of the rating a particular seat received at HealthyStuff.org. However our research shows that some car seats contain more harmful chemicals than others.”

Chemicals of concern showing up in car seats include polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and phthalate plasticizers. The health risks associated with the detected chemicals range from endocrine disruption (alteration of the hormone system) to cognitive impairments and cancer. Surprisingly, flame retardants aren’t chemically bound to the fabric, foam or plastic in which they are found. Instead the chemicals release over time. Meanwhile our children are strapped in — perhaps wearing as little as a diaper on hot days — where they may inhale, ingest and/or absorb the off-gassing chemicals.

Children actually breathe more air, and eat and drink more food and water (pound for pound) as compared to adults. This, coupled with the fact that children’s bodies are still developing, causes children to be more highly exposed and especially vulnerable to the potentially harmful effects of flame retardants.

Additionally HealthyStuff.org states, “… analyses of real-world vehicle fire scenarios suggest that flame retardant chemicals in car seats are unlikely to keep a child safer in a fire. The speed with which an engine fire fills the cabin with smoke and then flames, coupled with typical emergency response times, can make the brief delay in ignition from chemical flame retardants inadequate.” They urge car manufacturers to re-design certain parts of vehicles to reduce fire hazards instead of adding more chemicals.

Best Brands

So what is a concerned parent to do? For starters, check the report and its ratings to see where your favorite brands rank. The boosters and car seats manufactured by Britax and Clek and tested by HealthyStuff.org were rated as “lowest concern.” These two companies “… have been proactively implementing policies to reduce hazards in their products while still meeting all safety standards,” according HealthyStuff.org. Unfortunately Graco, a widely available brand, performed the worst with multiple products rated as “high concern.”

Tips from HealthyStuff.org

Here’s their advice regarding car seats and the car environment as a whole, because every surface and material in the car itself is likely coated or infused with flame retardant chemicals.

  • Vacuum the car interior and the nooks and crannies of car seats. Also dust surfaces with a wet cloth. Chemicals that migrate out, including flame retardants, can cling to dust particles. Open the car windows when possible.
  • Limit the time your children spend in their car seats. Only use the car seat during travel, not as a place for your child to nap or sit outside of the car.
  • Limit direct sunlight on the car seat and high temperatures in your car. Flame retardants and other hazardous chemicals may be released at a higher rate when your car becomes hot. When possible, park in the shade or in covered parking. On hot days, roll down the windows and let heat — and potential toxics — escape upon return to the vehicle.
  • Contact car seat companies. Let them know you expect them to manufacture products without toxic chemicals, which can threaten the health of our children and natural resources. Car seat companies need to hear from people like you. They need to know we are tired of toxic chemicals being added to our children’s products, and demand safer, healthier options.

To read more about the study and to view the full methodology, results and rankings, visit www.HealthyStuff.org.

Listen to Gillian Miller, Ecology Center Staff Scientist, discuss the report on Michigan Radio.

– Melissa Cooper Sargent, Environmental Health Educator with LocalMotionGreen at Ecology Center. For more information, you can email her at melissas@ecocenter.org or visit http://www.ecocenter.org/lmg.


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